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In Babylonian astronomy, records of the motions of the stars, planets, and the moon are left on thousands of clay tablets created by scribes.
Even today, astronomical periods identified by Mesopotamian proto-scientists are still widely used in Western calendars such as the solar year and the lunar month.
Approaching a most difficult work, the Phaedo, with the deftness of a seasoned student of Plato, Sebell unpacks the dialogue with surgical precision and relentlessly pursues every lead in the argument and drama.
The result is an extraordinary guide to the 'intellectual autobiography' of Socrates as it is presented in the Phaedo: an exacting investigation of Socrates' famous turn to the moral and political questions and a model of textual and philosophical clarity."-Susan Collins, University of Notre Dame"This extraordinarily ambitious book aims to vindicate the scientific character of political philosophy by elucidating the 'Socratic turn,' that is, the novel approach to the study of nature as a whole and of human nature in particular that marks the Socratic revolution in the history of thought.
Egypt was also a center of alchemy research for much of the Mediterranean.
The Edwin Smith papyrus is one of the first medical documents still extant, and perhaps the earliest document that attempts to describe and analyse the brain: it might be seen as the very beginnings of modern neuroscience.
This should also prove to be a genuinely significant book insofar as it raises far-reaching questions about Plato's understanding of natural science, teleology, the Ideas, and the philosophic life."-Peter J.
Ahrensdorf, author of The Death of Socrates and the Life of Philosophy"In The Socratic Turn, Dustin Sebell argues that Socrates' efforts to find a way forward after coming to see the shortcomings of pre-Socratic natural science can help political theorists today as we grapple with the predicament of political philosophy in a world transformed by modern science.
Previously, people investigating nature called themselves "natural philosophers".
For example, the domestication of maize for agriculture has been dated to about 9,000 years ago in southern Mexico, before the development of writing systems.
The development of writing enabled knowledge to be stored and communicated across generations with much greater fidelity.
Their development of geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, which was flooded annually by the Nile river.
The 3-4-5 right triangle and other rules of geometry were used to build rectilinear structures, and the post and lintel architecture of Egypt.