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Continuing the breeding experiments, he found that the self-pollinated AA bred true to produce pure tall plants, that the aa plant produced pure dwarf plants, and the Aa, or hybrid, tall plants produced the same three-to-one ratio of offspring.
He thus formulated his second principle, the law of independent assortment, in which the expression of a gene for any single characteristic is usually not influenced by the expression of another characteristic.
In the United States, Spencer gained considerable support among intellectuals and some businessmen, including steel manufacturer Andrew Carnegie, who served as Spencers host during his visit to the United States in 1883.
Critics of social Darwinism seized on these comments to argue that Sumner advocated a dog-eat-dog philosophy of human behavior that justified oppressive social policies.
Social theories based on biology gained renewed support after 1953, when American biologist James Watson and British biologist Francis Crick successfully described the structure of the DNA molecule, the building block of all life. Born in Ealing, Middlesex, on May 4, 1825, and educated at Charing Cross Hospital, London, Huxley received his medical degree from the University of London in 1845 and was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons.
During the 1960s anthropologists interested in the influence of DNA on human behavior produced studies of the biological basis of aggression, territoriality, mate selection, and other behavior common to people and animals. His observations on the medusa family of jellyfish led to the formulation of the zoological class Hydrozoa and to the realization that the two germ layers found in members of this class are comparable to the two germ layers that arise in the early embryological stages of higher animals.
In 1978, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared the islands a World Heritage Site, saying they are of such outstanding interest that they should be preserved as a heritage of all mankind.He began studying the mechanisms of evolutionary change while working on his doctoral thesis, a project that focused on the trilobite, an early ancestor of the horseshoe crab that lived during the Paleozoic Era 570 to 250 million years ago.After several analyses of the trilobite fossil record, Eldredge concluded that trilobites evolved in short, concentrated bursts, rather than the gradual and continuous change predicted by Charles Darwin in his theory of evolution.Lamarcks ideas about the influence of environment on organisms and the resulting changes in organisms over generations were forerunners of the theory of evolution that was introduced in the late 1850s.- Published a paper introducing his ideas on natural selection; the paper was presented to the Linnaean Society, a scientific organization in London, concurrently with a similar paper by British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace.