V n aginsky dating and characterizing writing

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All writing inks consist of a dye component or a mixture of dyes, as well as a binding substance known as a vehicle composed of several solvents and additives responsible for the physicochemical properties of inks (including lubricants, corrosion inhibitors, emulsifying agents, buffers, surfactants, and various other components) [2,3,4].

The fluorescence of some organic compounds may arise due to the exposure of the sample to laser irradiation.

It is known that the artificial and natural aging of writing inks printed on paper is an important forensic, criminalistics, and social problem.

The most pressing issue in this area is establishing the actual age of a document or its parts since the most common way of document forgery is adding and writing extra inscriptions, signatures, and fake dates with ballpoint, gel, and technical pens.

In this regard, spectral methods are the most effective ones; however, most of them have significant limits.

Methods of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ART-FTIR) are also often used in this regard.

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